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CHAPTER 2 - THE INTERNET & WWW

THE INTERNET

      Worldwide group of connected networks that allow public access to information and services

      Worldwide group of connected networks that allow public access to information and services

      No single organization owns or controls

      Estimated 225 million users

 

HISTORY OF THE INTERNET

      Started as a network of four computers at the University of California at Los Angeles in 1969

      Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) - ARPANET

      70 million computers today

 

HOW THE INTERNET WORKS

      Internet Service Providers and Online Services

      Have permanent connections to the Internet

      Provide temporary connections to individuals and companies for a fee

      Local and national ISPs

      Online services offer members only areas

 

CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET

      Business or school network connected to the Internet

      Dial-up access

      ISDN

      Cable modems

      Wiresless

 

How Data Travels the Internet

      Server

      Client

      Packets

      Routers

      Packet switching

      TCP-IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol)

 

THE INTERNET ADDRESSES

      IP (Internet protocol) address

      Geographic region

      Company or organization

      Computer group

      Specific computer

      Domain name

      Top-level domain (TLD)

      Top-level domain abbreviations

      Country codes

 

THE WORLD WIDE WEB - WWW

      Started in 1991

      Hyperlinks (links)

      Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

      Hypertext transfer protocol (http://)

      Web server

      Webmaster

 

Search Engines

      Directory maintained by a search engine company

      Helps find information on the Web

      Multimedia on the Web

      Web pages incorporate color, sound, motion, and graphics with text

      Plug-ins

      Helper applications

      Java

      Applets

      ActiveX controls

 

Multimedia on the Web

      Graphics

      Used to enhance the text-based Internet

      Graphics formats

      Thumbnails

      Animation

      Marquees

      Animated GIF

      WAV and AU formats

      Streaming audio

      RealAudio

      MP3

      Internet telephony

      Video

      Streaming video

      RealVideo

      Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

 

Multimedia on the Web

      Virtual Reality

      Simulation of real or imagined environment that appears as a three-dimensional (3-D) space

      Virtual reality modeling language (VRML)

      VR world

 

WEBCASTING

      Push technology

      Content downloaded automatically

 

ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

      Conducting business activities online

      Electronic data interchange (EDI)

      Three types of e-commerce

      Business to consumer (B-to-C, B2C)

      Consumer to consumer (C-to-C, C2C)

      Business to business (B-to-B, B2B)

      Electronic money

      Digital certificates

 

WEB PUBLISHING

      Personal Web pages

      Hypertext markup language (HTML)

      Tags

      Web page created with HTML

      World Wide Web Hypertext Animation

      Web authoring software

      Word processing packages

      Sophisticated authoring packages

 

WEB PUBLISHING

      Web hosting services

      Uploading

      Web folders

      Submissions services

 

OTHER INTERNET SERVICES

      E-mail

      FTP (file transfer protocol) sites and servers

      Telnet

      Newsgroups and Message Boards

      Mailing Lists

      LISTSERVs

      Chat Rooms

      IRC (Internet relay chat)

      Instant Messaging

      Portals

      Search engine

      Web communities

 

NETIQUETTE

      Internet etiquette

      The code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet

 

USING THE INTERNET: COOKIES AND SECURITY

      Cookies

      A small file that a Web server stores on your computer

      Often contains data about the user

      Keeps track of user visits

      Personalization

      Online shopping

      Usage statistics

      Target advertising

      Disabling cookies

 

Data Communication Model

      Sender/Receiver

      Receiver/Sender

      Communication Channel

      Modulation & De-modulation

 

Expanding your network

      Host Computer

      Front-end Processor

      Back-end Processor

      Multiplexors

      Router

      Gateway

      Backbone

      Dedicated Line

      Non-dedicated Line

 

Networking

      Network Topology

o       Star

o       Ring

o       Bus

      Networking

o       LAN local area network

o       WAN wide area network

o       MAN metropolitan area network

o       VAN valued added network

o       TAN tiny area network

      Transmission Media

o       Twisted Pair

o       Coaxial Cable

o       Fibre Optics

o       Microwave & Satellite